None known. In this rendition of Ukrainian history, the 2004 Orange revolution was the first attempt of the Ukrainian people to assert their sovereignty and pro-western leanings. A lion's share of Internet access was generated by residents of Kiev and other major cities--where the civic protest became the most widespread and opposition the most determined. In February 2012 Tymoshenko’s interior minister, Yuri Lutsenko, also was convicted of abuse of power and sentenced to four years in prison. Banners, posters, and displayed communications, 018. Yushchenko—running on an anticorruption, anticronyism platform—emerged as the leading opposition candidate, but his campaign was prevented from visiting Yanukovych’s stronghold of Donetsk and other eastern cities. Although Yanukovych challenged the validity of the results, Yushchenko was inaugurated on January 23, 2005. The demonstrators gave flowers to the soldiers that surrounded the Maidan and played music for them. During the 2004 Orange Revolution, Russia was also accused of interfering with Ukrainian events in favor of Yanukovych, while the Kremlin said Western money … The last time they did this, in November 2004, the result was the prolonged international incident that became known as the Orange Revolution. These events have changed Ukraine's history. On December 3, the Supreme Court followed suit, announcing that the election was fraudulent and Yanukovych’s “victory” could not be recognized. Subtelny, Orest. As the campaign grew, Yushchenko set up the Committee of National Salvation and called for a national strike until the true results of the election were honored. Presidential candidate Viktor Yushchenko and Politician Yulia Tymoshenko. For the supporters of Yushchenko and his opposition coalition, this was a clear sign of election fraud. At this point most opposition groups, such as the student group Pora, already suspected fraud. The “Orange Revolution” by Ukrainians was successful. The first and the second rounds of presidential elections in Ukraine were held on October 31 and November 21, 2004. Political turmoil occupied the first few years of Yushchenko’s presidency. Exit polls, on the other hand, showed Yushchenko winning by 11%. These changes are sometimes erroneously referred to as the "2004 Constitution". The election was held in a highly charged political atmosphere, with allegations of media bias, voter intimidationand a poisoning o… The joining order of groups and elites is not known. The “Orange Revolution” by Ukrainians was successful. Deliberate inefficiency and selective noncooperation by enforcement agents, 122. Motivated by many factors, Russia’s aggression in Ukraine has triggered the greatest security crisis in Europe since the Cold War. Demonstrators from outside Kiev also came to the capital to join in the protests. On January 22 two protesters were killed in skirmishes with police, and demonstrations soon spread to eastern Ukraine, a region that traditionally had supported Yanukovych and closer ties with Russia. Your victory depends upon how many people are ready to say ‘No’ to this government, ‘No’ to a total falsification of the elections.” The campaigners were successful in gaining an open and fair run-off vote in which Yushchenko was determined as the next president of Ukraine. This run-off vote took place on November 21, 2004, and official results from Kuchma’s government showed that Yanukovych had won by 3%. That event saw Ukraine cleaved off from the Russian sphere of influence, triggering a chain of events that rekindled the Russian-Western Cold War. Prime Minister Yanukovych’s supporters also held demonstrations, especially in the south and east. Because neither had won a majority of votes, a runoff poll was held on February 7. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2009. pp634-9. 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